Union Planes and what I know about them

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My Union Planes and what I know about them

The typical Union Planes are on par with Bailey but, the “X pattern” Unions, with their double adjusting nuts are perhaps a bit superior.

In 1900 Union Purchased Derby (Birmingham) Plane Manufacturing.

1900-1903 Union only manufactured the B plane.

In 1920 Stanley Purchased the Union plane division. (reference Patented Transitional and Metallic Planes in America, 1827-1927 (Vol. I)

The earliest Unions had this adjuster

Early Union Lateral

Early Union Lateral

Union Twisted LateralUnion #4C


  • The first two from the left are from the Union Patent (see below). Which came first is unknown at this time.
  • It’s believe the Union on the cap didn’t come until the Stanley buy out.
  • The Cutter with “Union Plane Co” with the hole toward the cutting edge would be Stanley made.
  • All the wording or numbering was in the bed behind the frog or tote on early models.
  • There are differences in the later Union and Stanley bases. The center post for the frog base is a little different. On some the pin for the lateral washer is distinctive on the Unions, although this is not on all of them.
  • Also the knob and tote on Unions are typically mahogany (Union) and not rosewood.


The Union X Series were from patents from John W Carleton and George E Trask.There were two versions, one with the locking nuts and one version with just the lever and no locking nuts. The version without locking nuts were only used on some transitionals

The Union X series was made in X2, X3, X4, X4 ¼, X4 3/8, X4 1/2 , X5, X5A (#5 ½ size), X6, X7, and X8

This is US Patent: 763,721

Patentees: John W. Carleton – New Britain, CT and George E. Trask – New Britain, CT

Applied:Oct. 26, 1903

Granted:Jun. 28, 1904

Union Vertical postUnion #X4CUnion #X5Union #X5A (same size as a Stanley #5 1/2)Union #X6Union #X8Union Pat 12.8.03

It was the X500 Series that had the lever without the locking nuts

US Patent: 746,285

Patentees: John W. Carlton – New Britain, CT and George E. Trask – New Britain, CT

Granted: Dec. 08, 1903

X500 SeriesX500 SeriesX500 Series toe logo

Here is a typical early Union #3

Early Union #3
Early Union #3


Union Bought Upson Nut (Standard Rule) in 1900