By Mark Webster

Part 1 (08/01/2020)

The following is an outline (sorry a little cryptic) from a 2-part presentation I made recently on the Facebook page A Plane Life  https://www.facebook.com/APlaneLife.us/   The two “informal” sessions are included in the posted videos. They are long, but if you have the patience I cover all of what is in this outline.

My planes

I do this as a HOBBY, I am not a machinist  and don’t have machinist’s tools

Starter planes not for collectors

Goal

High performing

Well taken care of… but not “brand new” looking

Getting starter planes.

I look for Types 6-15 prefer Types 9-15

Avoid:

Hairline crack on sides, or at ends of throat toss

            Deep pitting

Pitting on back of iron

Reasonable thickness on sides allows cosmetic adjustments

Shipping is often much higher than necessary and a killer.

When Plane arrives

Save packing material

Inspect for hairline cracks sides and mouth

1 Showing rip at mouth https://www.instagram.com/p/CAfxM1PjYY-/

Microscope or penetrant testing

Correct parts for Type?

GENERAL CLEANUP

Removing Rust dirt and Paint/Japanning

Electrolysis

Evaporust

Wire wheel

Bead blaster most efficient

Harbor Freight floor standing blast cabinet.  It has been upgraded using

2 Tacoma Co upgrade kits https://www.instagram.com/p/B_1Us6Cjw9m/

I have installed foot pedals for light and vacuum

Frog and Body

Stripping using bead blasting cabinet

No7 glass bead

150G fractured glass.

<= 40 lbs pressure

Pre-scrape if difficult

 ½“ chisel (sharp and careful not to scratch with corners.)

Avoid areas that will not be painted with 150G and higher pressure.

Follow w/ No 7 glass bead 20-30 lbs

Soften painted surfaces, and de-rust / clean all areas

3 Showing stripped bodies https://www.instagram.com/p/CBj13gcjx2x/

Unpainted larger parts:

Lever cap, iron, cap iron

20-30 lbs No 7 glass bead – de-rust and clean

Wire wheel after

4 Completed parts after blast and wire wheel

https://www.instagram.com/p/B_z-R1fjfT-/

Small parts –

5 Holder with threads https://www.instagram.com/p/B_5FOWLDi1x/

Helps clean screw slots

                        20-30 lbs No 7 bead

Fine wire wheel also wire cone

            Machined surfaces

            Posts for wood,

vice grips for small post and hold large post in hand

brass nuts held on large post

            Screws   

Do tops with plyers then flip and vice grips holding tops to do threads

            Horseshoe clip and washers

 plyers

Brass depth adjuster

            Low pressure glass bead to clean or walnut shells

            “Jig” Special threaded rod and steel nut, and hand drill

6 Showing knobs and “jig” https://www.instagram.com/p/B7kYXPjnZSl/

7 Fixture in action https://www.instagram.com/p/B7kYgHiHke-/

8 Applying Brasso https://www.instagram.com/p/B7kYy4EnrOI/

9 Applying Brasso https://www.instagram.com/p/B7kY3dcHEzz/

10 0000 steel wool and abrasive wheel on drill  (not using cloth any more) https://www.instagram.com/p/B7kZUcbnyjz/

11 Spinning away https://www.instagram.com/p/B7kZZAQn7Ah/

12 Paper towel to clean and buff https://www.instagram.com/p/B7kZrgFHwYJ/

13 All done https://www.instagram.com/p/B7kZvsfncDv/

14 All done https://www.instagram.com/p/B7kZzsgnjQO/

MASK AND PRIME BODY

Priming only here

Prevents rust during refurb process. Newly exposed metal can rust quickly.

Avoid damaging final finish

Frog primed later

Minimize Frog washer damage

Rust less likely on the frog

Will describe masking, primer and finishing techniques later

INITIAL FLATTENING OF PLANE BOTTOMS

Modified Belt sander

15 Showing modified Sander and lapping plate

https://www.instagram.com/p/B97EN5-g5_G/

Modified the platen

Graphite removed

3/16” glass

carpet tape fiberglass

Belts

Zirconia alumina

Norton Blaze coral ceramic 60G

Best belts

Zirconia 15 min

Blaze 50 min

Write # of  minutes used with Sharpie on belt to keep track how long used

Pressure helps on Zirconia and ceramic belts

60G 80G and 120G

Dust control

Foot pedal

            Prevents dipping  

16 Foot pedal and general setup https://www.instagram.com/p/B97KQ0ugmNQ/

Foot pedal to control on and off

220V discussion

Initial flattening process      

Frog attached (to pre-flatten and lap)

17 Showing effect of frog paws pushing down when tightened.

https://www.instagram.com/p/B97PVwcgkic/

Plane on belt – foot pedal on

Cover entire belt, plane parallel long axis

Diagonal NO

Warming up… peddle off

THEN remove plane. Reduces dips

18 Showing plane on sander https://www.instagram.com/p/B97Mhr3gDO0/

Safety risk using Pedal

Don’t over heat

                        Rotate bodies

                        Table saw heat sink

Clean up Plane sides

Need enough material

90˚ sides? get a shooting plane. Originals not really 90˚

120G Zirconia

Final hand sand

CRC 3-36 to paper towel then plane

PRECISION LAPPING

Setup

Lapping Plate

Granite flat

3/8” glass

Aluminum on glass

Make sure your flat

Precision straight edge

Support surface for the plate. Shims?

Sandpaper

3M Stikit Gold

Best but expensive

Easy removal glass or granite

Klingspor

Cheaper

Glue too aggressive on glass or granite

Length80GCost wCost
YrdsPriceshippingShipping/Yrd
Klingspor retail10$10.95$7.99$18.94$1.89
3M Stikit Gold25$52.96$0.00$52.96$2.12
Norton Gold25$28.99$4.99$33.98$1.36
Porter Cable10$12.99$0.00$12.99$1.30

$0 shipping is with Prime

I have not used Norton Gold or Porter Cable.

Links for the sandpaper above:

Klingspor

https://www.woodworkingshop.com/search.aspx?q=AR51344

3M Stikit Gold

Norton Gold

Porter-Cable

Mods to allow using Klingspor

19 Lapping plate set up https://www.instagram.com/p/B8FJekzAgUD/

Klingspor is manageable on aluminum + paste wax

            Paste wax aluminum every other strip.

3/8 Glass + ¼”  aluminum  plate 4” x 36” https://www.midweststeelsupply.com/store/6061aluminumplate  $37 with shipping

Carpet tape

Flat support surface

Confirm flat

Precision straight edge

Reverse lapped aluminum No 7 LN + 3M Stikit

Confirmed end point with precision straight edge and  0.0015” feeler gauge

Cleaned No 7 afterwards 😃

Lapping

20 Showing actual lapping https://www.instagram.com/p/CAjnVgBD6SZ/

Sharpie Grid pattern on bottom PENCIL may be good alternative still evaluating

80G 5 sets of 30 laps

After 30 use magnet remove iron grit

Once flat 120 180 (220) grits. Scotch-brite Maroon pad

Fine file sharp edges then 220G

CRC-3-36

FROG PART ONE

Loose lateral adjuster Fix

Jig

21 Shows detail of jig and basic use https://www.instagram.com/p/B8zrgpnAdcT/

Tune bedding surface for plane iron

Sandpaper and granite flat

22 Shows process of lapping  https://www.instagram.com/p/B9C5xn4Agr1/

Will come back to frog later

            Need tuned iron first

PLANE IRON

Flat?

hammer tap on ¾” birch ply or twist it straight in vise. Parallel clamps

Verify flat on granite flat

Pre-flatten back

Flat and damage free

120 G on sander w/ glass platen

Jigs for this

23 Jigs for initial flattening on sander https://www.instagram.com/p/B7oZDyCHJR_/

24 Getting ready to present iron to sander https://www.instagram.com/p/B7oZKKfnhAW/

25 Jig on the sander https://www.instagram.com/p/B7oZPkvHEGk/

Procedure

Place jig/iron

Foot pedal on run few seconds

Foot pedal off

Once stopped remove iron.

       This avoids dip

Rotate the irons so they will cool between bursts of sanding.

26 Initial flattening complete https://www.instagram.com/p/B7oZagRHqNA/

Square iron and add new bevel

Flatten reference side of iron before marking right angle

27 Shows from making a reference edge to grinding bevel   https://www.instagram.com/p/B9x4WMmgUDP/

Mark 90˚ from Reference side low enough to remove damage and old bevel

Oneway Wolverine grinding stands (versus Veritas)

Steel not aluminum (wear)

More stable

Bevels

01                                25˚ primary and 30˚ secondary

A2 and PMV-11           25˚ or 30˚ primary and 33˚-35˚ secondary

28 Showing Geiger’s Tru N Dress https://www.instagram.com/p/B8rkJSNAIKD/

FROG PART TWO

Does the frog sit properly?

29 Shows jig and checking for improper bedding angle https://www.instagram.com/p/CAq1njCjCOY/

Skewed iron with everything centered

File new bedding angle on frog bottom

Frog needs to be lower on the side where the iron is projecting less

Jig used to keep paws co-planer to rear machined flat Types 9+

Procedure

30 Shows filing frog and resulting correction  https://www.instagram.com/p/CAq4QBFjfQi/

Set up jig adding shims to bring sandpaper to touch paws that establishes original relationship between 2 planes. (Not hand planes here) ha ha

Sharpie the machined flats

Using parallel clamps file lowering appropriate side on the flats

Clean up rear flat on granite flat with 80 grit

Use jig to finish paws

Recheck in plane

repeat until iron projects evenly

31 Shows diagram for jig https://www.instagram.com/p/CArc4t5j32F/

DO NOT OVER TIGHTEN FROG SCREWS

32 Shows plane cross section https://www.instagram.com/p/CBUB5cMD5mW/

FINISH THE IRON

Final flatten back

33 Shows flattening on granite flat to 320G https://www.instagram.com/p/B9w44Qmj8LW/

Lap at 80G or 120G until flat, sharpie

Single direction lapping

Once flat 120, 180 220, 320 removing scratch patterns for each.

Polish the back

On freshly flattened stones.

34 Moving through the stones https://www.instagram.com/p/B9xAkNsAMHw/

Lap both directions keep flat

Go through thought 1000, 1200, 2000, 5000, 8000. Removing abrasive patterns of previous grits.

1200 and 2000 are added here to speed process, not used in daily sharpening.

Back should not touch earlier stones once polished unless there is damage.

Final primary Bevel

35 Finetune primary and hone secondary bevel https://www.instagram.com/p/B9x9LHXAp8D/

To control getting a straight uncambered edge

36 Showing problem w center wheel guides https://www.instagram.com/p/CBPotIYDpuw/

Avoiding wheel track to insure flat edge

37 Showing solution for center wheel (reusing lapping sandpaper here) https://www.instagram.com/p/CBPnPFzDUXR/

38 Showing a nice secondary bevel https://www.instagram.com/p/B7hsIFpHUgx/

Camber or no camber

I don’t follow traditional philosophy about fine tuning or not based on plane size. I highly tune all the same.

Minute camber on No 5 and smaller. No camber on 6 and up

I use Chris Schwarz’s method for cambering. See at end of this document.

TUNING THE CAP IRON

39 Showing tuning the cap iron https://www.instagram.com/p/B9yDceOjlai/

SET UP PLANE AND TEST

If plane is performing well… then final mask and paint

MASKING AND FINISHING

Wash and rinse primer— washing soda

Blow completely dry

40 Showing washing https://www.instagram.com/p/CCPXOP1jI3m/

Masking

Single edge razors

#11 blades for X-Acto knives

Tweezers

Scissors

Scotch Blue Original masking tape, ½” ¾” 2”

Masking pre-Type 9

41 Show technique for frog flats https://www.instagram.com/p/B79CLtCg4jK/

Masking Type 10 and later

42 Technique frog top https://www.instagram.com/p/B79VIqpAMeb/       

43 More https://www.instagram.com/p/B79Tnc2AY3_/

44 Technique frog bottom https://www.instagram.com/p/B79U2Z1ghMf/

45 More https://www.instagram.com/p/B79UaS0gmv7/

Masked bodies

46 Eye candy masked bodies https://www.instagram.com/p/B77pJYmgi2h/

Masked frogs

47 Eye candy masked frogs https://www.instagram.com/p/B7fRhEoHHVN/

SPRAYING

Turn-table easier

48 Showing video of using turn table during spaying a coat of primer  https://www.instagram.com/p/CCcoNmjDMRB/

Prime frog (hand held) Flop the Y adjusting lever back and forth

Mix cans of matt 3 mins (or greenish)

1 coat Primer

2 coats Matt Black

1 coat Matt Clear

30-60 mins between coats

            Remove masking 1-2 hrs

            Next day remove paint from top edges of sides

            Cure 2 weeks

Finishing materials Links

Primer

Matt Black

Matt Clear

Part 2 (07/25/2020)

From last week

Reference for Screw sizes

Victor Machinery is now Wholesale Tool the old phone # will work 800-723-5359

 WWW.WTTOOL.COM

Lever cap screw          9/32-24 Tap #0307-1015,

They don’t sell die

Here is place in Canada

https://www.newmantools.com/price/taps_ns_pr.html

Cap iron Screw           5/16-18 Tap #0329-0041

5/16-18 Die #0535-0115

Brass adjusting nut    LH 9/32-24 die and tap

They don’t sell, I had mine custom made from Tapco

Frog screws                 12-20 Tap #0307-0796 They have 200 on B.O since Jan

                                    12-20 Die #0536-0086 They have 200 on B.O since Jan

Frog adjusting screw  1/4-24 Tap #0307-0003

1/4-24 Die #0504-0185

Handle toe screw       12-20

Handle and knob bolt 12-20

Frog adjusting plate   7/32-24 Tap #0307-0915

      Screw                    7/32-24 Die #0504-2570

Some feel you can use 7/32″-20Tpi Whitworth form instead of a 12-20. I have not tried it.

Discuss camber

            Chris Schwarz’s method at bottom of this document.

            No 3,4,5 very minor

            No 6,7 no camber

Finishing:

Spraying frog…. flop Y back and forth

Removing tape in a couple of hours so not brittle

Pre-flattening

Writing time used on belts with sharpie

                        Keep track of belt use

Hand lapping:

            Spay blue vs sharpie vs pencil

Another sandpaper thanks Sean updated above comparison.

Rhynostick 80 Grit.  $1.08/Yrd including shipping

Good price

Trying… ok so far

Grinding wheels

Norton 3x blue 80 grit

https://www.woodturnerscatalog.com/p/97/2651/norton-3X-8-Inch-Grinding-Wheel?term=grinding+wheel&term=grinding%20wheel

Inserts for grinding wheel

https://www.woodturnerscatalog.com/p/97/6196/raptor-R3X-Grinding-Wheel-Bushing-2-Piece-Set

Grinding at 90˚ to reduce length of iron

Holding machinists squares to evaluate the end of the cutting iron for squareness

Structural Difference between planes Type 8 and earlier versus Type 9 and later (Cut away side views)

Showing how frog interfaces to body

49 https://www.instagram.com/p/CC2tdSnD4Az/

50 Tapping out the pin and repairing a lateral adjuster https://www.instagram.com/p/B80R3z0gnKI/

Classic view of plane size and level of fine tuning. All mine the same.

Microscopic views of cutting edge after using sandpaper

51 https://www.instagram.com/p/CC9BmbyDlLg/

Side view of frog, iron, cap iron and lever cap showing pressure points

52 https://www.instagram.com/p/CDA85ZoDP6v/

How long does it take to  hone frog bedding surface

53 https://www.instagram.com/p/CDB-01ejeMO/

Discussed method for removing depth adjuster bolt.

Could sacrifice a nut shorten and split.

Loctite, (heat if have to remove)

TOTES AND KNOBS

Strip w/ lacquer thinner and maroon Scotch-brite pads wear gloves

Cracks partial breaks …. finish the break

Glues

54 Oily wood epoxy for areas to receive stress

https://www.instagram.com/p/B7hFPKLnp-R/

http://www.glueoakandteak.com/

2 Ton Epoxy for lower stress like replacing tops

5 min for cosmetic

Mix with rosewood dust if gaps

TOTES

Severely broken tops

55 Eye candy of broken tops https://www.instagram.com/p/B7fSDsNHehK/

Remove tops on table saw (safer on bandsaw)

Base against fence

Cut at front point

56 Eye candy tops removed https://www.instagram.com/p/B7fSHChHacc/

57 Matching color and grain for tops https://www.instagram.com/p/B7fSSjcHZwX/

I use Brazilian Rosewood if I have it, also Indian, Bolivian and Honduran. Turning blanks is a source 1.5”x 1.5 x 3” increments.

This wood is toxic wear breathing protection

58 Showing gluing on new tops https://www.instagram.com/p/B9mZegyD-0m/

59 Showing using patterns shaping tops https://www.instagram.com/p/B9nhI46g45c/

60 Eye candy lots of patterns https://www.instagram.com/p/B7hFCvGHtYV/

61 Showing making new hole for nut https://www.instagram.com/p/B9nqUUejHc3/

62 Showing drilling post hole and more shaping https://www.instagram.com/p/B9nuxwxDE65/

63 Showing more shaping sanding and filling https://www.instagram.com/p/B9o4yHADCUh/

64 Showing blending color and finishing adjusting nut https://www.instagram.com/p/B9pjKVDAayb/

65 Eye candy repaired totes ready for finishing https://www.instagram.com/p/B7fTSM9Hot8/

Clean Middle Breaks

Clean surfaces with lacquer thinner and brass brush

Glue with oily wood epoxy

66 Adding support dowels https://www.instagram.com/p/CAVsa1jjoCb/

Old or Ragged Middle Breaks

67 Showing Part 1 of repair….. patterns, removing section on bandsaw and gluing new section https://www.instagram.com/p/CCXjSdIjwK9/

68 Showing Part 2 of repair to completion https://www.instagram.com/p/CCXi6KCjal4/

69 Showing finished repair https://www.instagram.com/p/CCXmwIKDi2H/

KNOBS

70 Eye Candy Knobs completed https://www.instagram.com/p/B7fR790nLjN/

71 Shows Knob side repair https://www.instagram.com/p/B7_ivI1gVQU/

72 Shows splits in knobs https://www.instagram.com/p/B7hCH2tHL16/

73 Shows punch to split https://www.instagram.com/p/B7hCQAVnBAD/

74 Shows result of punch https://www.instagram.com/p/B7hCYN2nvHC/

75 Shows often multiple splits https://www.instagram.com/p/B7hCdzlnlIq/

76 Shows trimming acid brush https://www.instagram.com/p/B7hCk7XnAsI/

77 Shows taping multiple break https://www.instagram.com/p/B7hC6tUHyqZ/

Glue in a series of steps, break glue…break at next crack glue and so on

78 Shows using zip tie on multiple breaks. https://www.instagram.com/p/CCuFl2Pj7DM/

79 Shows clamping single break https://www.instagram.com/p/B7hDCmvnqjP/

80 Eye candy glued knobs https://www.instagram.com/p/B7hDWYgHgm1/

81 Eye candy knobs using paper with numbers to keep track of which plane each knob belonged to https://www.instagram.com/p/B7hDaeqHUly/

82 “Jig” for sanding knob https://www.instagram.com/p/B7hEHwKnZNJ/

83 knob mounted  on drill press I use the lathe now https://www.instagram.com/p/B7hEOTlHOxD/

84 Lath set up for knob https://www.instagram.com/p/B7wS32nABAd/

85 Video knob sawdust “Black Hole Dust Catcher” https://www.instagram.com/p/B7wSsb_AaBC/

https://www.woodturnerscatalog.com/p/89/6387/hc-Black-Hole-Dust-Catcher-System

86 Aid for spraying knob https://www.instagram.com/p/B7hEe7-H_Uq/

87 Eye candy finished knobs https://www.instagram.com/p/B7hEvH1HB4v/

Nut height (Tote and knob)

controlled with washer

88 Showing problem with deep nut holes

https://www.instagram.com/p/B7r8x0tHnmZ/

89 Showing after adding washers

https://www.instagram.com/p/B7r8epCHIt3/

90 Showing washers that fit

https://www.instagram.com/p/B7r8XbxHuf2/

91 Showing you have to drill out the hole a little

https://www.instagram.com/p/B7r8Rbwn9Ft/

            92 If hole too deep make a plug

https://www.instagram.com/p/CC-L8NsDWzN/

FINISHING THE WOOD

Blend repairs (if needed) with General Finishes Water Based Dyes. Med and Dark Brown.

220G w/ grain

Knobs I use the lathe and go up to 320 and maroon scotch-brite

¼ dowel and blue tape to hold parts while spraying

4 coats of Deft Clear Wood Finish Satin

0000 Steel wool sheds…. Sand between coat with

Hand rub final coat

FINAL TUNE AND TEST

When paint cured fit tote and knob

Final performance test

Other Topics

Repair of lazy lever cap

93 Showing removing original rivet https://www.instagram.com/p/B8Nca89g0hk/

            Flatten and/or reverse the spring plate

94 Showing finishing repairhttps://www.instagram.com/p/B8NcLjGgYLz/

95 Showing final result https://www.instagram.com/p/B8Nb7xggyi6/

96 Showing adding glass to backs of stones  for longer use ¼”thick glass cut to size. Silicon to back of dry stone  https://www.instagram.com/p/CCC0qvqDrCX/

97 Showing making new posts for tote and knob https://www.instagram.com/p/B89css5jkOE/

98 Showing removing Y adjuster from frog https://www.instagram.com/p/CAVuF3pDB34/

For red Loctite, use heat to remove

99 Showing technique to reinforce area around front screw of Totes with a brass ring https://www.instagram.com/p/B9FoQXZj8DF/

Another repair is to cut slot out and insert wood

CAMBER

I generally use Chris Schwarz’s method to camber. From his book Handplane Essentials:

With a Honing Guide Make curved cutting edges using finger pressure.

A curved cutting edge is critical to most operations with your bench planes. The curve prevents the corners of the iron from digging into your work, and it allows you to correct the flatness of the face or edge of a board. But how do you create this curve, sometimes called a “camber” with a honing guide? There are lots of valid ways to create the curve. Here’s how I do it. I start with a #1,000-grit water stone. This stone cuts quickly enough to shape an edge or remove small nicks. Clamp your cutter in your honing guide and then (mentally) divide its edge into five “positions” (see the photo above). The trick to creating a curve is to put finger pressure at each position. At position “1,” put your fingers firmly against the corner and sharpen the corner for 10 strokes. Then move your fingers to the other corner (position “2”) and go for another 10 strokes. Then, at positions “3” and “4,” go for seven strokes. Then do a few strokes in the center at position “5.” Now check your work with a square. You need to learn what the curve should look like for each of your planes. Here are the basic principles: If the iron is bedded at a high angle greater than 45°, you need less curve. If the iron is bedded at a lower angle such as 12° or 20°, you need more curvature to get the same effect. And what is the desired effect? You want to take the widest shaving possible without the corners of the cutter digging in. There is math here. Having a .005″ arc-to-chord curve at 45° results in a curve of .0035″ being exposed out of the mouth. (If you have a bevel-up plane bedded at 12°, the same .005″ arc-to-chord curve will result in .001″ curve being exposed in the mouth – thanks to woodworker Rob Porcaro for the formulas.) The truth is you need to learn what the right curve looks like when you show the cutting edge to a straightedge. If there is too much curve, sharpen some more in the middle (position 5) to flatten the curve. If the curve is too flat, add more finger pressure or strokes at the corners. When you have a satisfactory curve, advance to the polishing grits (#4,000 and then #8,000) and repeat the same regimen. The polishing grits will remove less metal, but you definitely can increase or decrease the curvature while polishing. It takes a little practice to find the right curvature for your plane, but the rewards are enormous: Shimmering surfaces with a sensuous, scalloped and touchable texture. It’s worth the effort.

PUT FINGER PRESSURE AT EACH station and count your strokes.

Be sure to watch the sharpening stone –

it will tell you where metal is being removed.